Smart City Mobility
Smart cities, mobility, and the road in between
Smart Transportation: Benefits and Real Life Examples
Smart transportation is one of the main ways smart cities are improving the daily lives of citizens and improving sustainability. It includes:
- Information systems that collect data about traffic, vehicles, and usage of different modes of transport. These information systems can make public transport more efficient and accessible, and can also help optimize and regulate the use of private cars.
- New transport technology that upgrades existing modes of transport or introduces new ones. For example, connected cars that become a visible part of the city’s transportation fabric, mobile apps that turn taxis into ride-hailing services, bicycle sharing, electric scooter rental, and more.
A main goal of smart transport systems is to reduce the reliance on private cars, make private transport more attractive, and incentivise city residents and visitors to switch from private to public transport. For example, smart transport systems can limit private cars to certain routes and reserve priority lanes or even entire roads for other modes of transport.
Read on to learn how today’s mega cities, with unbearable levels of congestion and air pollution, are using smart transportation to survive and thrive.
Here, we’ll explore:
Elements of Smart Transportation
There are many elements, both technical and organizational, that make up smart city transportation systems. We’ll cover three important elements: connected cars, Mobility as a Service (MaaS) systems, and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS).
Modern cars are equipped with Internet of Things (IoT) devices that integrate with a city’s traffic management systems - this is known as Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I).
Connected cars share real-time data about road conditions and their surroundings, becoming a sensor that can feed the smart city with valuable data and enabling incident response, traffic optimization and traffic re-routing. They can also receive information from systems like smart traffic lights, streetlights, lane markers, street signs and smart parking sensors.
Connected vehicles can communicate with their surroundings. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication creates wireless communication channels between cars, letting them share information about location, direction and speed. Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P) technology alerts drivers of pedestrians nearby and can prevent accidents.
Mobility as a Service
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) solutions integrate functions like trip planning, booking and payments, and offer commuters one interface for multiple modes of transport: train, bus, taxi, ride-sharing, bicycle sharing and more.
MaaS gives commuters an attractive alternative to the private car - a variety of convenient transport options at their fingertips. Commuters can select the mix of transport services that can bring them to their destination at the speed, convenience and price they desire.
For cities, MaaS creates a tremendous opportunity to improve the quality and accessibility of public transport, introduce new types of transport and encourage their usage, and create system-level efficiencies by gaining a central view of all transport activity across the city.
Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS)
Advanced traffic management systems, legacy systems that exist in many smart and traditional cities, combine information from toll booths, traffic lights, car parks, and new infrastructure such as smart roads. ATMS work by changing traffic lights and road signals in real time, adjusting rates on toll roads and relaying traffic information to city control centers.
An ATMS provides the city and drivers real-time information about traffic conditions, and can help optimize traffic flow, reduce congestion and emissions. Alongside MaaS and new modes of transport, ATMS fills in the gap of managing existing traffic flow, and gaining better control of private car movement.
Smart Cities Transportation Around the World
As smart transport gains momentum, digitalization is changing passenger mobility, expectations, and experiences throughout the world. Let’s explore the smart transport technology used in Singapore’s and Barcelona’s smart cities.
Smart Transport in Singapore
Singapore’s Smart Nation project is an inspiration to entrepreneurs, urban planners, technologists and public sector officers around the world. Singapore’s smart transportation projects include:
- Autonomous vehicle trials: The inclusion of self-driving technology in public transport and freight to deal with limitations in land and labor power.
- Contactless fare payment: Commuter-centric e-payment systems for public transportation use. Commuters enter and exit fare gates using this fare payment method.
- On-demand shuttles: Commuters book a self-driving shuttle via their smartphone. The shuttle takes commuters from their destination to the train station.
- Open data and analytics for city transportation: Public data resourced transport planning. The Land Transport Authority (LTA) studies data from fare cards to control bus fleets and pinpoint commuter hotspots.
Smart Transport in Barcelona
In 2011, Barcelona applied data-driven, smart city technologies to better its services. The city put resources into infrastructure, including a comprehensive Internet of Things (IoT) sensor network with over 500 km of fiber optic infrastructure and a Wi-Fi network, which they use to source data about energy, transportation and air quality. Here are a few of Barcelona’s smart transport projects:
- Orthogonal bus system: The bus network of the city is founded on an orthogonal grid scheme, which encourages intermodality, deliberately placing bus stops to permit connections between tram lines and bus lines, bicycles, metro trains, etc.
- Bicing shared bicycle system: Provides 6,000 bicycles which can be used for short trips around the city. Bicycle pickup stations are located close to public transportation and parking areas, for convenience.
- Smart parking spaces: Barcelona placed wireless sensors beneath roads to lead drivers, via an app, to vacant parking spaces. The app also allows users to pay for parking and supplies parking data for use by different smart city systems.
Smart Transportation Should be Cooperative, Not Competitive
Today, transportation models have evolved from individual modes of travel to diverse collective initiatives. There is now a relationship between all forms of transport, based on price, proximity, and availability. People can choose to travel alone or share a vehicle with others, allowing them to exercise personal preference while considering factors such as the weather.
For example, commuters who typically traveled by public transport are now using new ride-hailing services. In addition, when the weather is poor people generally opt to drive their private cars and store their bicycles away.
In these scenarios, various modes of transport “cannibalize” one another, potentially hurting the overall collaborative functioning of the transportation system. Cannibalism should thus be avoided. The cannibalism phenomenon points to a key issue: mobility is a framework that must be founded on cooperation.
Smart city transportation should not be driven by competition between different modes of transport, each of which aims to dominate the transportation market. Successful smart transport networks will combine multiple modes of transport, all working in tandem and cooperating to give passengers the best multi-mode mobility solution.
To facilitate this type of cooperation, cities must put the power into the hands of commuters. By creating smart transport systems and a seamless MaaS interface to access transport services, commuters can instantly visualize and select from all available transport options. This will encourage transport providers to fill in the gaps missing in the city’s transport ecosystem, and together, provide an attractive alternative to private cars.